Answered By: Linda Kern Last Updated: Dec 12, 2016 Views: 5
Interviews are often used in qualitative research settings. They collect perceptual information - the subject's perceptions of experiences, situations, etc., and how those perceptions influenced feelings, actions, and decisions. The information gathered in an interview may be summarized. direct quotes can also be used very effectively to vividly portray the subject. Regardless of how you choose to use the information, it must be cited.
In the text:
A. A. Smith (personal communication, October 30, 2016) "blah blah blah...."
"Blah blah blah..." (A. A. Smith, personal communication, October 30, 2016).
A personal communication is not listed in the references because it's not recoverable.
If you decide to quote your subject, include it in the text and enclose the quote in quotation marks if it is fewer than 40 words, following with the citation (as in my example above). If the quote is 40 or more words, display it in a freestanding block of text without the quotation marks. Start the block quote on a new line, and indent the entire block of text about a half inch. End with the citation. In this case, the period for the sentence precedes rather follows the citation.
Blah blah blah. Blah blah blah blah. (A. A. Smith, personal communication, October 30, 2016)
This is APA format, pp. 170-171.
Occasionally an author will choose to format differently, formatting all quotes as block quotes. This creates emphasis and focus on the words of the subject. If you think this would be effective in your case, run it by Dean Starich first to be sure she doesn't object.
Thanks for asking!